It is used primarily in Hong Kong and in overseas Chinese communities, so is usually written with traditional Chinese characters. Cantonese includes extra characters and characters with different meanings from standard written Chinese. The complex interaction between the Chinese written and spoken languages can be illustrated with Cantonese.
The transcriptions made during the Tang Dynasty are particularly valuable, as the then-popular Tantra sect required its mantras to be rendered very carefully into Chinese characters, since they were thought to lose their efficacy if their exact sounds were not properly uttered. The History of Liao contains a list of Khitan words phonetically transcribed with Chinese characters.
The History of Jin contains a list of Jurchen words phonetically transcribed with Chinese characters. During the Qing dynasty some bilingual Chinese-Manchu dictionaries had the Manchu words phonetically transcribed with Chinese characters.
The histories were in fact hastily compiled Translating from english into chinese suffered from inaccurate and inconsistent phonetic transcriptions of the same names.
Qianlong identified the Solon language with the Khitan, the Manchu language with the Jurchen, and the Mongolian language with the Mongolian.
However the Khitan language has now been found by modern linguists to be a Mongolic language and is unrelated to the Solon language. The project was part of the Siku Quanshu.
A learned committee, consisting of Chinese, Manchus, Mongols, western Mohammedans, etc. These savants in their reformatory zeal, proceeded on the idea, that all the proper names had been incorrectly rendered in the official documents of the Mongols, and had to be changed.
They pronounced the same verdict with respect to the histories of the Liao and the Kin. For further particulars, compare my Notes on Chinese Mediaeval Travellers, p. The original spelling of the name however is always given, and the chapters are indicated where the name occurs.
This renders the vocabulary very useful for reference, and we may lay aside the fact, that the principal object in view of the learned committee, was the absurd explanation of the meaning of the newly-invented names.
I may give a few examples of the sagacity these savants displayed in their etymological commentaries.
This edition is not difficult of purchase, and I fancy it is the only edition of the Yuan shi found in European libraries. Polo, have all been made from this corrupted text.
The old sinologues knew only an extract of the great "Mongol History". The title Kalif rendered Ha-li-fu was changed by the Committee into Farkha and is explained as being "a village in Manchuria.
They include not only transcriptions of proper nouns but also those of common nouns for new products. Many of these phonemic loans proved to be fads, however, and popular usage and linguistic reformers subsequently favored calques or neologisms in their place.
Sound and meaning[ edit ] See also: Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese A transcription into Chinese characters can sometimes be a phono-semantic matchingi. Sometimes the transcription reflects chengyu or other Chinese sayings and idioms.
They can also reflect subjective opinions or advertising. Given that a Chinese neologism can be a phono-semantic matching i. Cultural differences and personal preference about negative meaning is subjective. Sign for the Avenida do Conselheiro Ferreira de Almeida. A street in Macau is called Avenida de Demetrio Cinatti.
The Chinese transcription of "Wiki" is composed of two characters: Foreign companies are able to choose representations of their names which serve advertising purposes: In addition, transcriptions used in Chinese speaking regions sometimes differ from official transcriptions. In general, mainland China tends to preserve the pronunciation of names deriving from their language of origin while Taiwan often transcribes them according to the English pronunciation.
Hong Kong and Macau, meanwhile, formerly transcribed names using their Cantonese pronunciations, although that practice has become less common following their handovers.
Chinese transcriptions are now frequently cribbed from the mainland, even if the local pronunciation then becomes more remote from the original.We also have professional, native-English translators who can translate your Chinese document into English.
Normally, two characters equal one English word. When translating from Chinese, we charge “per character” since it can vary from word to word.
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