It also means taking all of these seriously and giving them worth and value. In fact, giving someone respect seems similar to valuing them and their thoughts, feelings, etc. It also seems to include acknowledging them, listening to them, being truthful with them, and accepting their individuality and idiosyncrasies.
School Graduations, Religion and the Courts Event: Can Congress Regulate Religious Freedom? Religion and American Foreign Policy More: Can you give us some background on these controversies?
There is a very long relationship between religion and the military in the United States, going back to the early days of the Army, which had chaplains funded by the Continental Congress.
But over the last 30 years, the military, like many other parts of our society, has become much more religiously diverse. This diversity has produced some of the recent controversies.
For example, a few years ago there were complaints that some Air Force Academy faculty members and more-senior cadets were pressuring cadets to participate in religious activities. Those who investigated the complaints expressed concerns about a culture of proselytizing at the academy. There also have been a number of stories of service men and women in various branches of the military being pressured to participate in prayers.
All service academies used to require everyone to attend religious services.
Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit found this requirement unconstitutional in Anderson v. Lairdthe Naval Academy still holds pre-meal prayers, and attendance at these meals is required. This has recently stirred up some controversy, leading some students at the Naval Academy to seek legal help from the American Civil Liberties Union.
A similar practice of mealtime prayer at the Virginia Military Institute was held unconstitutional by the 4th U. Circuit Court of Appeals in Mellen v. Most of the recent controversies over this issue, however, have involved social pressure rather than official requirements.
These disputes are about whether a person in authority has been too aggressive in urging others within the military to participate in some religious activity. In the past, this might not have caused a dispute, but now there are serious controversies over this issue because people are much more willing to object to the pressure.
Can you explain why, despite these constitutional restrictions, the chaplaincy exists?
The chaplaincy does present something of a paradox. The government also pays for the places of worship and even for the worship materials themselves.
So the chaplaincy does appear to be an oddity under the Establishment Clause. The reason that the chaplaincy is likely constitutional, despite the Establishment Clause restrictions you mentioned, has to do with the principle of religious accommodation.
While the Establishment Clause generally prohibits the government from funding and sponsoring religious activities, there is one important exception to this rule: The government may fund or sponsor a religious activity if the government does so to accommodate the religious needs of people who, because of government action, no longer have access to religious resources.
Thus, when the military has isolated service members from their normal worship opportunities, the government may then facilitate worship by providing the necessary religious resources, like chaplains.
In such situations, the government is merely responding to a religious need and is therefore not promoting religion. Have courts upheld the constitutionality of the military chaplaincy on the basis of this accommodation principle? Supreme Court has never heard a case directly involving the military chaplaincy.
But in Abington School District v. Schemppa landmark decision that prohibited public schools from leading Bible reading, several justices argued that the military chaplaincy is a valid accommodation of religion under the Establishment Clause.
The court in Schempp rejected the argument that school-sponsored Bible reading is a permissible way of accommodating students with religious needs.
In their written opinions on the case, some of the justices contrasted the religious needs of students with those of service members. Because military duties might take service members into isolated and hostile environments, service members might not be able to participate in civilian worship communities or receive spiritual counsel from civilian clergy.
Given this inability of service members to worship outside the military base, some of the justices concluded that the military may provide chaplains to accommodate the religious needs of service members. Marsha case decided by the 2nd U. Circuit Court of Appeals.
In Katcoff, the 2nd Circuit upheld the U. Today, it is very unlikely that a court would follow the reasoning in Katcoff because courts have interpreted the Free Exercise Clause much more narrowly over the last 20 years. For more information on how courts have narrowed the religious liberty guaranteed by the Free Exercise Clause, see A Delicate Balance: Instead of finding that the Free Exercise Clause requires the military to establish a chaplaincy, as the Katcoff court did, most courts today would likely find that the Establishment Clause permits the military to provide chaplains so long as it does so in response to the religious needs of service members.
But what if the government responded to these religious needs by providing chaplains in a way that favored some religions over others?
That precise question has been raised in a series of cases, going back a decade, over the way that the U. In Aprila U.Mission command leadership is an evolving social perception concerning authority, relationships, shared understanding, purpose, trust, risk, and environment.
In a mission command environment, ceding control to subordinates is the norm (and paradoxically the best way to gain control because soldiers take as much responsibility for the mission as.
feelthefish.com 3/21/07 PM x Just Warfare Theory and Noncombatant Immunity should reject the idea that just warfare theory prescribes an absolute and exception-free condemnation of what we are prone to call terrorist acts. I don't respect authority as a general rule.
I only respect the people that earn it. I call these authority figures 'leaders'. Respecting leaders is a smart tactic because it is a .
LAW AND AUTHORITY: AN ANARCHIST ESSAY BY PIERRE KROPOTKIN. PRICE THREEPENCE. LONDON: those who govern us have done nothing but ring the changes upon “Respect for law, obedience to authority.” This is the moral atmosphere in which parents bring up their children, and school only serves to confirm the impression.
Military authority. Fraternization with Different Ranks in the Military Introduction One of the major ethical problems faced by the Army now days is the policy regarding relationships and fraternization between soldiers and military personnel of different ranks.
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