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History[ edit ] Athletes in ancient Greece were advised to consume large quantities of meat and wine.
A number of herbal concoctions and tonics have been used by strong men and athletes since ancient times across cultures to try to increase their strength and stamina.
Later, bodybuilder Earle Liederman advocated the use of "beef juice" or "beef extract" basically, consomme as a way to enhance muscle recovery. In s with recreational and competitive bodybuilding becoming increasingly popular Irvin P.
Johnson began to popularize and market egg-based protein powders marketed specifically at bodybuilders and physical athletes. The s and s marked a dramatic increase in the growth of the bodybuilding supplement industry, fueled by widespread use of modern marketing techniques and a marked increase in recreational bodybuilding.
Under DSHEA, responsibility for determining the safety of the dietary supplements changed from government to the manufacturer and supplements no longer required approval from the U.
Since that time manufacturers did not have to provide FDA with the evidence supplement business report 2012 substantiate safety or effectiveness unless a new dietary ingredient was added. It is widely believed that the DSHEA further consolidated the position of the supplement industry and lead to additional product sales.
In addition, ingredients listed have been found at times to be different from the contents. InConsumer Reports reported unsafe levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in several of the protein powders that were tested. The muscle mass increase was statistically significant but modest - averaging 0.
Protein quality Protein milkshakes, made from protein powder center and milk leftare a common bodybuilding supplement. Bodybuilders may supplement their diets with protein for reasons of convenience, lower cost relative to meat and fish productsease of preparation, and to avoid the concurrent consumption of carbohydrates and fats.
In addition, some argue that bodybuilders, by virtue of their unique training and goals, require higher-than-average quantities of protein to support maximal muscle growth;        however there is no scientific consensus for bodybuilders to consume more protein than the recommended dietary allowance.
Protein powders are the most popular and may have flavoring added for palatability.
The powder is usually mixed with water, milk or fruit juice and is generally consumed immediately before and after exercising or in place of a meal. The sources of protein are as follows and differ in protein quality depending on their amino acid profile and digestibility: Whey protein contains high levels of all the essential amino acids and branched-chain amino acids.
It also has the highest content of the amino acid cysteinewhich aids in the biosynthesis of glutathione. For bodybuilders whey protein provides amino acids used to aid in muscle recovery.
There are three types of whey protein: Whey hydrolysate is enzymatically predigested and therefore has the highest rate of digestion of all protein types. Often has mesh or a metal whisk inside to breakdown lumps in the mixture.
Some nutritionists claim that osteoporosis may occur from excessive protein intake because protein can put pressure on the kidneys and lead to bone loss due to calcium leaching.1Q05 Earnings Press Release; 1Q05 Investor Presentation; 1Q05 Financial Supplement; Pro forma historical financial supplement including first-quarter results.
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