Some training has been effective in various skill areas but not in others, even within the same study Oxford, The purpose of the present study was to shed light on the issue o strategy training. We have investigated the effect of metacognitive strategy training through the use of explicit strategy instruction on the development of lexical knowledge of EFL students.
Rubin identified seven main strategies which characterise the good language learner. Selecting language situations that allow one's learning preferences Good language learner rubin 1975 be used; Actively involving oneself in language learning; Seeing language as both a rule system and a communication tool; Extending and revising one's understanding of the language; Learning to think in the language; Addressing the affective demands of language learning.
Besides the ambiguity of the term 'successful learner'  and the logical fallacy that imitating the result of actions will reproduce the cause of those actions "A implies B, therefore B implies A"these characteristics must be seen as growing out of and indicating a general active, inquiring and attentive approach to learning, "which can only be acquired integratively" Tudor Rubin acknowledges that other factors influence what constitutes an effective set of learning strategies task, learning stage, age, context, individual styles, cultural differences but does not take account of affective and metacognitive factors sections 3.
In this light, the aim of learner-training should be to help learners to come to terms with their strengths and weaknesses, and to find the strategies that suit them best, rather than trying to make everyone a 'successful learner'. Metacognition A metacognitive approach to teaching sees education as involving the development of 'whole' persons as self-directed agents and autonomous learners Quickebut Wenden In fact metacognition "the process that underlies the efficient use of strategies and the essence of intelligent activity" [ Wenden c: Effective learners need to be able to employ strategies unconsciously, and then to be able to call their metacognitive awareness into play as and when necessary when faced with a difficulty.
Understanding the strategies of learning and gaining self-knowledge, in the form of awareness of the processes we use in learning, helps us to control those processes and gives us the opportunity to take responsibility for our own learning. According to these authors, such learning depends on developing a 'seventh sense', an awareness of one's mental processes, and "cultivating this seventh sense should be one of the prime aims of the curriculum.
The facts that learners acquire about their language learning processes, through experience and informal learning contexts, are a permanent part of their store of knowledge in the long-term memory.
Learners can talk about these beliefs. They are available to awareness cf. What language learners know about their language process is not always correct. Some of it may come from 'folk wisdom' from friends and family, from teachers, or from experience.
It may seem to make good sense, but is not always empirically supportable. Metacognitive knowledge can be used to analyse a learning task or goal; it can influence one's choice of strategies; it can be used to evaluate whatever transient awareness of learning that can occur in the course of a learning task, and be changed by this insight Wenden b: Thus metacognitive training "should include heightening awareness of the feelings involved in different aspects of language learning, and of individuals' own personalities and strengths and how these could best be employed in language learning" Affective Factors The importance of affect in influencing language learning is addressed in section 3.
A number of benefits are claimed to result from learner training: Learners who know about learning can transfer learning strategies to other subjects cf. These benefits arise from explicit training in the use of a broad range of strategies that can be utilised throughout the language learning process, giving students the necessary tools to: A tabular representation of findings relating to learner training table XVIIIbelow completes this section:Research has shown that more effective language learners use more and better learning strategies than poorer language learners (Rubin, ; Stern, ).
This research investigates the difference in ESL learning strategies used by students with different levels of ESL learner motivation and how gender plays a role in both.
The good language learner realizes that a second language can't be learned by only memorizing grammar rules from a book. Language is primarily intended to communicate meaning and not only be grammatically correct.
A person’s second language or L2 is a language that is not the native language/first language/L1 of the speaker, but is learned by the speaker after his/her native language (usually a foreign language, see below).Additionally, a person’s second language can be explained as the second language in the country the speaker lives in and they may be both used in daily life.
“good language learners” (Rubin Naiman et al. ) and identifying the strategies that contribute to learning. After doing some studies, research demonstrated that students use strategies and that these could be identified and classified.
Those studies were basically based on interviews with “good”. The interviews were aimed at examining the nature of the online routines reported in the survey and confronting them with selected characteristics of good language learners identified in the early studies (Rubin ; Stern ) as well as the more contemporary studies into good digital language learning reported by Oxford and Lin ().
(Rubin, ) and Stern () that the good language learner differs in his/her approach, study habits, preference, persistence and language behavior from the poor learner.